Gambling involves risking something of value on an event that is largely determined by chance, such as a game of cards, the tossing of a coin or a roll of the dice, with the purpose of winning a prize. In the case of gambling, the amount at stake is usually money, although it can be other things of value as well. Traditionally, gamblers have bet on sports events, horse races, and other forms of entertainment, but recent technological developments have blurred the lines between different ways that people can wager money.
Many people engage in gambling for social, financial, or emotional reasons. Socially, it is common for people to play games such as poker or horse races in groups. It is also common for people to gamble as a way of celebrating victories or commiserating with losses. In addition, it is sometimes used as a way to relieve unpleasant feelings such as boredom or loneliness.
Some people develop a problem with gambling that goes beyond occasional recreational gambling. This condition is called pathological gambling (PG). Approximately 0.4%-1.6% of Americans meet the criteria for a PG diagnosis, and it is more common in males than in females. It is also more likely to develop in adolescence or young adulthood than at any other time in life.
The symptoms of PG are similar to those of other addictive disorders, and there is high comorbidity between PG and mood disorders. Specifically, a significant portion of people with PG experience depression in their lifetime. The association between depression and PG is bidirectional, meaning that depressive symptoms may precede or follow a gambling episode.
Although the exact cause of a person’s PG is unknown, some researchers have theorized that genetic factors and environmental influences are at play. In addition, some individuals have a history of trauma and abuse in childhood that can increase their vulnerability to developing a PG.
Several different types of psychotherapy can help treat a PG. These include cognitive-behavioral therapy, family therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy. Typically, these treatments are delivered by a trained mental health professional.
In addition to psychotherapy, there are also medications that can be used to treat a PG. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not approve any drugs to treat a PG, so most treatment options focus on psychotherapy. This type of treatment is delivered by a licensed mental health professional and focuses on helping a patient identify and change unhealthy emotions, thoughts and behaviors. For example, a therapist might teach a patient coping skills to help him deal with stress and avoid gambling. They might also help a patient establish new spending and saving habits. They might also advise a patient to seek support from a peer support group such as Gamblers Anonymous, which is based on the 12-step model of Alcoholics Anonymous. They might even recommend that the patient find a sponsor, who is another former gambler who has experience remaining free from gambling addiction.